PROPERTIES OF SOILS AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT SOURCES OF WASTE IN KOKO, DELTA STATE.

AUTHOR: IMADOJEMU PEDRO EZOMON (MSc)

AFFILIATION: DEPARTMENT OF SOIL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY OWERRI NIGERIA

An investigation into properties of soils as affected by different sources of waste. The study was conducted in Koko, Delta State. A grid survey method was used. A 20 m x 20 m plot was selected and mapped out in each site and divided into 10 grids of 4 m x 8 m. Physicochemical properties of the soils namely particle size distribution, bulk density, porosity, organic matter content, organic carbon, soil pH, available phosphorus, total Nitrogen, exchangeable bases and exchangeable acidity were determined using standard laboratory procedures. The concentration of heavy metal (Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn), were determined by using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The analysis of variance (ANOVA), simple correlation, regression analysis and mean separation (LSD) at 0.05% were statistical tools used.  The textural class were dominated by sand with the highest mean percentage recorded at Oil Spill Sites (OS) (82.34%). The ANOVA for silt clay ratio (SCR) was significant at both 5% and 1%. The coefficient of variation for silt (68%) showed high variability. The ANOVA for chemical properties and LSD a 5% showed that statistical difference existed among the chemical properties in the sites. The total nitrogen mean value was 10.10 and occurred in OS. The soil organic matter (SOM) was high compared to range of 1% estimated for tropical soils. The available phosphorus showed high variation. The Na (0.11-0.41) and K (0.06 – 0.21) showed lowest values while the Mg and Ca showed high values while the Ca/Mg ratio indicated low fertility (<2.5). The TEA (0.41–0.59 cmol/kg) was generally lower then the TEB in all the sites. The heavy metal analyzed in this study showed high concentrations above the maximum tolerable concentration (MTC) allowed in the European Union (EU) and United States (US).  The total heavy metal present (THMP) mean value was highest in OS. The multiple regression for the heavy metals showed correlation. Statistics also revealed a positive correlation between TEB and heavy metals and a negative correlation between heavy metals and pH. The ANOVA and LSD for pH, SOM, %BS, ECEC and Al-Sat all showed significant difference.

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